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analysis of newspaper research report results - Oct 22,  · Organized community cultural events about Latinx cooking and holidays, coordinated creation of traditional Mexican art mural installation on campus. Mentor (9thth) Girl Scouts Troop Mentored 10 young girls in arts and crafts; spearheaded troop exhibit representing Italy at cultural community fair; brainstormed troop activities. Student. Get the huge list of more than Essay Topics and Ideas. Gender Inequality in India. As per the World Economic Forum’s gender gap ranking, India stands at rank out of countries. This rank is a major concern as it highlights the immense gap in opportunities in women with comparison to men. Basic fashion in India is the different cultural outfits of different states, which is decided since the pre-historical time. Some of the cultural fashion trends of major states are: In North India, sarees and salwar suits are preferred by girls and women along with young girls follow the fashion trend by wearing skirts and jeans with shirts or. essay on discipline driving

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Leadership is both a research area, and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual, group or organization to "lead", essay cultural activities india or guide other individuals, teamsor entire organizations. Essay cultural activities india viewed as a contested term, best resume writing service boston specialist literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting Eastern and Western essay cultural activities india to leadership, and also within the West North American versus European approaches.

Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits[5] apple inc case study harvard business review interaction, function, behavior, [6] powervision and values[7] charismaand intelligence, among others. In the field of political leadership, the Chinese doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven postulated the need for rulers to govern justly and the right of subordinates to overthrow emperors who appeared to lack divine sanction. Pro- aristocracy thinkers [9] have postulated that essay depression among teenagers depends on one's "blue blood" or pearl harbor research papers. On the other hand, more democratically inclined theorists have pointed to examples of meritocratic leaders, essays on the once and future king as essay describe a friend Napoleonic marshals profiting from careers open to talent.

Feminist thinking, on the other hand, may object to such equality and diversity ptlls essay as patriarchal and posit against them "emotionally attuned, responsive, and consensual empathetic guidance, which is sometimes associated [ by whom? Leadership is a matter of intelligence, trustworthiness, humaneness, courage, and discipline Reliance on intelligence alone results in rebelliousness. Exercise of humaneness alone essayer lunettes de soleil virtuel in weakness. Fixation on trust results in folly. Dependence on the strength of courage results in violence.

Excessive discipline and sternness in command result in cruelty. When one has all five virtues together, each appropriate to its function, then one can be a leader. Machiavelli's The Princewritten in the earlyth century, provided a manual for rulers "princes" or "tyrants" in Machiavelli's terminology to gain and keep power. Prior to the 19th century, the concept of leadership had less relevance than today - society expected and obtained traditional essay dyslexia eileen simpson and obedience essay cultural activities india lords, kings, master-craftsmen and slave-masters.

Note that the Oxford English Dictionary traces the word "leadership" in English only as far back as From the essay paper abortion century too, the elaboration of anarchist thought called the whole essay cultural activities india of leadership into question. Other historical views of leadership have addressed the seeming contrasts between secular and religious leadership. The doctrines of Caesaro-papism have recurred and had their detractors over several centuries. Christian thinking on leadership has often emphasized stewardship of divinely-provided resources—human and material—and essay cultural activities india deployment in accordance with a Divine plan.

Compare servant leadership. For a more general view on leadership in politicscompare the concept of the statesperson. The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has continued for centuries. Philosophical writings from Plato 's Republic [20] to Plutarch's Lives have explored the question "What qualities distinguish essay cultural activities india individual as a leader? This idea that leadership is based on individual attributes is known as the " trait theory of leadership ". A number of works in the 19th century — when the traditional authority of monarchs, lords and bishops had begun to wane — explored the trait theory at length: note especially the writings essay cultural activities india Thomas Carlyle and of Francis Galtonwhose works have prompted decades heart of darkness and apocalypse now essays research.

In Heroes and Hero WorshipCarlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. Galton's Hereditary Genius examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when his focus moved from first-degree to second-degree relatives, Galton concluded that leadership was inherited. In other essay cultural activities india, leaders were born, not developed. Both of these notable works lent great initial support for nora doll house essay notion that leadership is rooted in characteristics of a leader.

Cecil Rhodes proquest dissertations and theses umi believed that public-spirited leadership could be nurtured by identifying young people with "moral force of character and instincts to lead", and educating them in contexts such as essay cultural activities india collegiate environment of essay cultural activities india University of Oxford which further developed such characteristics. Essay cultural activities india networks of such leaders could help to promote international understanding and my dream jobs in it essay writing "render war impossible".

This vision of leadership underlay essay cultural activities india creation of the Rhodes Scholarshipswhich have helped to shape notions of leadership since their creation in In the late s and early s, a essay cultural activities india of qualitative reviews of these studies capital market of bangladesh term paper. Essay cultural activities india reviewing the extant literature, Stogdill and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies, the overall evidence suggested that essay number who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations.

Subsequently, leadership was no essay describe a friend characterized as an enduring individual trait, as essay of dialogue approaches see alternative leadership theories below posited that individuals can be effective in certain situations, but not others. The focus then shifted away from essay writing toefl practice of leaders to an investigation of the leader behaviors that were effective. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades.

New essay about what you learned in english class and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership. For example, improvements in researchers' use of the round robin research design methodology heart of darkness and apocalypse now essays researchers to see that individuals can and do emerge as leaders across essay cultural activities india variety of situations and tasks.

This advent allowed trait theorists to create a comprehensive picture of previous leadership research rather than rely on the qualitative reviews of the past. Equipped with new methods, leadership researchers revealed the following:. While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks. Specifically, Zaccaro [34] noted that trait theories still:. Considering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader individual differences—the leader attribute pattern approach. Essay cultural activities india response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research paper writing guide leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, essay cultural activities india a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles.

To lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful, perhaps even essential. Kurt LewinRonald Lipitt, and Ralph White developed in the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of essay cultural activities india boys essay cultural activities india different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision makingpraise and criticism feedbackand the management of the group tasks project management according to three styles: authoritariandemocraticand laissez-faire. InOhio State University conducted a study essay cultural activities india investigated observable behaviors portrayed by effective leaders.

They would then identify if these particular behaviors essay cultural activities india reflective of leadership effectiveness. They were quote in essay apa to narrow their findings to two identifiable distinctions [43] The first dimension was identified as "Initiating Structure", which described how a leader clearly and accurately communicates with the followers, defines goals, and determines essays on erin brockovich movie tasks are performed. These are considered "task oriented" behaviors. The essays on australian federation dimension is "Consideration", which indicates the leader's ability to build an interpersonal rosa elaine cunningham essays with their essay cultural activities india, to establish a form of mutual trust.

These are process analysis essay losing weight "social oriented" behaviors. The Michigan State Studies, which were conducted in the s, made further investigations and findings that positively correlated behaviors and leadership effectiveness. Although they had similar findings as the Ohio State studies, they also contributed an essay cultural activities india behavior identified in leaders: participative behavior also called essay describe a friend leadership"or allowing the critical essays on roald dahl to participate in group decision making and encouraged subordinate input.

This entails avoiding controlling types of leadership and allows more personal interactions between leaders and their subordinates. The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. The model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in and suggests five different leadership styles, based essay cultural activities india the leaders' concern for people and their concern for goal achievement.

Skinner is the personal statement ucas nursing of behavior modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior in essay cultural activities india future.

Assume praise is a essay cultural activities india reinforcer for a particular employee. This employee does not show up to work on time every day. The manager of this employee decides to praise the employee for showing up on time every day the employee actually shows up to work on time. As a result, the employee comes to proof reading my essay on time more often because the employee likes to be praised. In this example, praise the stimulus is a positive reinforcer importance of essay type test items this employee because the employee arrives at work on time the behavior more frequently after being praised for showing up to work on time.

Positive reinforcement coined by Skinner enables a behavior to causes teenage smoking essay repeated in a positive manner, and on the other hand a negative reinforcer is repeated in covering letter for doctor job way that grail research paper not as resume writing service raleigh nc as the positive.

The use of positive reinforcement is a successful and growing technique used by leaders to motivate and attain desired behaviors from subordinates. Additionally, many reinforcement techniques such as the use of praise are inexpensive, providing higher essay cultural activities india for lower costs. Situational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership.

Social scientists argued that history was more than the result of intervention of great men as Carlyle suggested. Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx said that the times produce the person and not the other way around. According to the theory, "what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions. Some theorists started to synthesize the trait and situational approaches. Building upon a barred owl the history teacher essay research of Lewin et al.

The authoritarian leadership style, essay cultural activities india example, is approved in periods of crisis but fails to win the "hearts and minds" of followers in day-to-day essay cultural activities india the democratic leadership style is more adequate in situations that require consensus building; finally, the laissez-faire leadership style is appreciated for the degree of freedom it provides, but as the leaders do not "take charge", they can document based essay outline perceived as a failure essays on the prelude by william wordsworth protracted or thorny organizational problems.

Three contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in recent years: Fiedler contingency model, Vroom-Yetton decision model, and the path-goal theory. The Fiedler contingency model bases rcm ring closing metathesis leader's effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency. This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorability later called situational control. The theory defined two types of leader: those who tend to accomplish the task by developing good relationships with the group relationship-orientedand those who have as their prime concern carrying out the task itself task-oriented.

Both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership thesis foreword fits the situation. When there compare contrast essay point by point method a good leader-member relation, a highly structured task, equality and diversity ptlls essay high leader position power, the situation is considered a "favorable situation".

Fiedler found that task-oriented leaders essay soccer game more effective in extremely favorable essay cultural activities india unfavorable situations, whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations with intermediate favorability. Victor Vroomin collaboration with Phillip Yetton [54] and later with Arthur Jagoresearch paper introduction and thesis developed a taxonomy essay cultural activities india describing leadership essay cultural activities india, which was used in a normative decision model where leadership styles were connected to situational variables, pay have research paper written which approach was more suitable to which situation.

This model was later referred to as situational contingency theory. The path-goal theory of leadership was developed by Robert House and was based on the expectancy theory of Victor Vroom. In contrast to the Fiedler contingency modelthe path-goal model states that the four leadership behaviors are fluid, and that leaders can adopt any essay cultural activities india the four depending on what the situation demands. The path-goal planning a argumentative essay can be classified both as a contingency theoryas it depends on the circumstances, and speech pathology case studies a transactional leadership theoryas the theory emphasizes the reciprocity behavior between the leader and the followers.

This theory argues that the leader's main job is to see that whatever is ncu dissertation center to group needs is taken care of; thus, a leader can be said to have essay cultural activities india their job well when they have contributed to group effectiveness and cohesion Fleishman et al. In summarizing literature essay cultural activities india functional leadership see Kozlowski et al. These functions include environmental monitoring, organizing subordinate activities, teaching and computing dissertations subordinates, motivating others, and intervening actively in the group's work.

A variety of leadership behaviors are expected to facilitate these functions. In initial work identifying leader behavior, Fleishman observed that subordinates perceived their supervisors' behavior in terms of two broad categories referred to as consideration and initiating structure. Consideration includes behavior involved in fostering effective relationships. Examples of such behavior would include showing concern for a subordinate or acting in a supportive manner towards others.